SECTION 4 — FORWARD PASS
Article 1 — Definition & Possession#
A legal forward pass is thrown by any Team A player from a point behind the scrimmage
line, towards the opponent's Dead Line, to any eligible receiver or receivers. The
ball shall not touch the ground, any part of the goal post assembly, an official or any
other object. The ball is considered to be in the possession of Team A until the pass
is ruled completed or incomplete. The passing motion begins when the passer's
hand, with the ball in possession, begins moving forward.
A screen pass is a forward pass thrown to a receiver at a point behind the line
of scrimmage. Should the ball be touched by an eligible receiver in the offensive
backfield then proceed across the line of scrimmage, it shall continue to be considered
a screen pass. Unless otherwise stated, rules governing forward passes shall apply
to screen passes.
Article 2 — One Forward Pass On Any Down#
Only one forward pass shall be thrown on any down. If a second pass is thrown:
PENALTY: L10 DR
Article 3 — Eligibility Of Passer#
A pass may be thrown by any Team A player who was behind the scrimmage line
when passing the ball. The passer need not be the first player to receive the ball
from the centre.
If the pass is thrown from a point across the line of scrimmage:
PENALTY: L10 DR
Article 4 — Eligibility Of Receiver#
The following players are eligible receivers:
- any Team A player who is identified by number as an eligible receiver (see Rule 4, Section 5, Article 3, Note 1 & Rule 6, Section 4, Article 4, Note 2) and who, at the snap of the ball, is occupying a position either at the end of the line of scrimmage or in the backfield at least one yard back of the line of scrimmage.#
- any player of Team B, whether or not the pass is legally thrown.#
NOTE: If the ball is touched by a Team B player, all players of both teams become eligible receivers.#
NOTE: Team A players shall be identified by numbering as follows:#
Eligible receivers will wear numbers from 0-49 and 70-00.
Ineligible receivers will wear numbers from 50-69.
NOTE: Notwithstanding this article, a Team A player wearing an eligible receiver number may enter the game at an ineligible receiver position under the following
- On a third down play or,
- On a convert attempt or,
- On a first or second down kicking formation in the last minute of a quarter, provided that, prior to the game, Team A had declared to the Referee which eligibly numbered players may be so deployed, in which event any such declared player shall not be eligible as a pass receiver, regardless of the position occupied on that play.
A maximum of 2 players wearing an ineligible number (50 — 69) will be allowed to line up in an eligible position as an end or in the backfield after reporting to the referee prior to a scrimmage play. The referee will inform the opposing team and all officials of the player number and position he will be playing.
NOTE: Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of Article 4, a Team A player wearing an eligible receiver number, who is in forward motion from a backfield position and within one yard of the line of scrimmage when the ball is snapped and who crosses the line of scrimmage at a point at least five yards beyond the offensive tackle position, shall remain eligible as a pass receiver.#
When an ineligible receiver is the first player of Team A to catch or deliberately touch
Article 5 — Complete Forward Pass#
A pass is completed under the following conditions:
- when caught by a Team A eligible receiver or by two or more such receivers simultaneously,
- when caught by a player or simultaneously by players of Team B or when such a pass is touched by, or touches B1 and then is caught by B2,
- when caught simultaneously by players of both teams who maintain possession until the play is terminated, the ball shall be awarded to Team A,
- if an eligible receiver of either team catches a pass while off the ground and in bounds, but is carried or pushed by the opponent in a manner that causes the receiver to land Out of Bounds in possession of the ball, the pass shall be ruled complete at the furthest point of advance,
- an eligible receiver of either team, who catches a pass near the Sideline and touches the ground in bounds with the first step, shall retain possession even if the next step is Out of Bounds.
Article 6 — Incomplete Forward Pass#
A forward pass shall be declared incomplete and the ball next put in play at the point
of last scrimmage with downs continuing:
- when the ball strikes the ground, goal post assembly, an official or any object on or back of the Dead Line or Out of Bounds, even if previously touched by a player,
- when the ball goes Out of Bounds, even though touched by a player in the Field of Play,
- when the ball is caught by an eligible player of either team while off the ground who, on landing, touches a Sideline, a Sideline in Goal, a Dead Line or any object or ground beyond such lines,
- when the passer has commenced with a forward passing motion with the ball moving forward and, as a result of contact with an opponent, the ball leaves the passer's hand and strikes the ground,
- while in midair a receiver of either team who has firm control of the ball, but loses possession of the ball when that player's feet or other part of the body hits the ground, with or without contact by any opponent.
Article 7 — Intentional Grounding#
If a Team A passer deliberately, and in the official's opinion for the purpose of avoiding
loss of yardage, throws the ball behind the line of scrimmage to the ground or Out
of Bounds or to an area in which there is not an eligible Team A receiver, the team
shall be penalized.
PENALTY: LD at point from which pass was thrown. If the pass was thrown from the Goal Area, a safety touch score shall be awarded to Team B, subject to the right of Team B to decline the score and accept the play as it terminated.
NOTE: Team A shall not be penalized if the passer throws the ball across the line of scrimmage to an open area or Out of Bounds.
Article 8 — Interference By Team A#
Prior to a pass being thrown a Team A player may:
- on a screen pass, block a Team B player at any point on the field, effective the instant the ball is snapped or,
- on a forward pass, block up to one yard in advance of the line of scrimmage.
After a forward pass is completed, a Team A player may block an opponent at any
point on the field.
Article 9 — Interference By Team B#
- Prior to a forward pass being thrown, a player of Team B may interfere with a Team A player in a zone one yard in depth on Team B side of the line of scrimmage. Cut blocking of receivers attempting to proceed downfield is not permitted.
- In addition, a member of Team B occupying a defensive position behind the legal contact zone is entitled to use hands and arms to ward off a Team A player who is threatening the established defensive position. Any action other than that required to protect that position shall be ruled "Illegal Contact On A Receiver."
- If a player commits pass interference when a forward pass is deemed uncatchable, it shall be ruled as "Pass Interference."
Article 10 — Interference By Both Teams After A Forward Pass Is Thrown#
- Should the attempt to catch the pass take place in the offensive backfield, the following shall apply:
- Interference by Team A is legal.
- Interference by Team B against an eligible Team A receiver in an attempt to
catch the ball is a foul.
PENALTY: 1D to Team A, 10 yards in advance PLS
- Should the forward pass be thrown across the line of scrimmage, the following
- Eligible receivers of both teams have an equal right to the ball and are entitled
to the positions they occupy.
- If an official deems a pass uncatchable and Team B has committed pass interference, it shall be deemed pass interference on an uncatchable ball. (See Rule 6, Section 4, Article 9 (c).)
- Pass interference shall not be called if it occurs after the ball has been touched by an eligible receiver of either team.
- Inadvertent tripping by a player with equal position shall not be ruled as interference.
- Tripping an opponent from behind shall be considered accidental pass interference.
- Screening (face guarding) of an opponent during an attempt to catch the ball is pass interference.
- It is pass interference by either team when a player physically restricts or impedes an opponent in a manner that is visually evident and materially affects the opponent's opportunity to play the ball. A player who has gained position shall not be considered to have impeded or restricted the opponent in a prohibited manner if all such actions are a bona fide effort to go to and play the ball.
- If opposing players are looking for the ball or if neither player is looking for the ball and there is incidental contact in moving to the ball that does not materially affect the route of an eligible player, there is no interference.
- Any eligible receiver who makes contact, however severe, with one or more eligible opponents while looking for and making a genuine attempt to catch or bat a reachable ball will not be called for interference. It shall be ruled pass interference if a player "goes through" an opponent during an attempt to play the ball.
PENALTY: Team A L10
Team B Interference
- If interference is ruled accidental — L10 PLS and AFD for Team A.
- If interference is ruled deliberate — AFD awarded to Team A at PF or 10 yards in advance of PLS (whichever is closer to Team B Goal Line). If the infraction occurs in the Team B Goal Area — AFD to Team A at Team B's one-yard line.
- By Team B on a convert attempt — attempt repeated by Team A at Team B's one-yard line.
Article 11 — Interference Following An Interception#
When a forward pass has been intercepted, any player of Team B may interfere anywhere, within the bounds, provided that contact is made only above the waist of the opponent.
Article 12 — Interception By Team B In Its Own Goal Area#
If Team B is in possession of the ball and it is "held" within its own Goal Area, the ball
is dead without score.
If Team B intercepts and then fumbles while attempting to run the ball out of the Goal
Area, the ball may be legally recovered by Team A.
When the ball is dead without score, Team B shall scrimmage at its 25-yard line, first
If Team B, while in possession in its Goal Area following an interception in goal,
commits any infraction in the Goal Area or in the Field of Play, the penalty shall be
applied from the 25-yard line, or option.
If Team B intercepts a pass in its Goal Area and the play is ruled dead in B's Goal
Area and Team A is called for Rough Play or Unnecessary Roughness in the Field of
Play or in the Goal Area, the penalty shall be applied from Team B's 25-yard line.
NOTE: If a Team B player intercepts a pass in the Field of Play while moving toward the Team B Goal Line and momentum carries that player into the Goal Area, the play shall be ruled as an interception in goal.
NOTE: The only score that can result from a Team B interception in its Goal Area, while the ball remains in the Goal Area, is a touchdown by Team A following recovery of a Team B fumble.